This Teenager Had A Neanderthal Mom And A Denisovan Dad

Bone fragment 'Denisova 11' belonged to the daughter of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. T Higham, University of Oxford

Over 40,000 years ago, two other hominins roamed around Eurasia with the ancestors of modern humans: Neanderthals and a mysterious species known as the Denisovans. By the sound of things, a strange love triangle existed between this promiscuous bunch of hominins.

A fleck of bone discovered in a remote cave in Siberia suggests Neanderthals and Denisovans had children together, as reported today in the journal Nature. Researchers have long argued that these two species must have interbred, but no physical evidence had been found to back it up – until now.

In 2012, scientists unearthed a small bone fragment of a hominin at the Denisova Cave in Siberia. Recent genetic analysis of the ancient remains has revealed that it once belonged to a teenage female, no younger than 13 years old, that had a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father. 

“We knew from previous studies that Neanderthals and Denisovans must have occasionally had children together," study author Viviane Slon, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA), said in a statement. "But I never thought we would be so lucky as to find an actual offspring of the two groups."

Making things even more intriguing, the Neanderthal mother appears to be genetically closer to the Neanderthals that lived in western Europe than to the Altai Neanderthals that are known to have lived earlier in the Denisova Cave. The genome analysis also showed that the Denisovan father had at least one Neanderthal ancestor in his family tree. This suggests that the newly discovered Neanderthal-Denisovan "love child" was not a one-off.

A view of the valley from above the Denisova Cave archaeological site, Russia. B Viola, MPI f. Evolutionary Anthropology
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