This 110-Million-Year-Old Armored Dinosaur Was Turned To Stone By A Geological Medusa

The nodosaur and its terrifying armor plating. Robert Clark/National Geographic.

Robin Andrews 16 May 2017, 16:17

Dinosaur fossils come in many forms, but most of them are incomplete skeletons. With some exceptions, large sections of these long-lost beasties have disintegrated or are otherwise lost to time – it takes a certain level of geological serendipity to find anything more.

It does happen, though. A few months ago, for the first time, the fossilized brain of a non-avian dinosaur was found, something only made possible because the swamp the creature died in “pickled” its brain. Now, as has been dramatically revealed by National Geographic in its June 2017 edition, a 110-million-year-old nodosaur, an armored herbivore, has been found with half of its skin and armor intact.

Easily, this is one of the best preserved dinosaurs to ever have been found. Uncovered from a mine in Alberta, Canada, researchers were stunned to find that its armor plating was still so strong after all this time that the heavy-equipment operator that accidentally struck it failed to cause any significant damage.

Far from being a fragmented mess, this nodosaur – still covered in its ultra-rigid keratin sheaths and its mineralized skin – has been fossilized and preserved in true 3D.


Weirdly, this landlocked monster was found in a small “impact crater” within a deep-sea sediment layer, somewhere it never would have dared to venture back during the Early Cretaceous. Indeed, this geographic displacement explains why it was so well-preserved in the first place.

Back then, Canada was a very different place. North America was segregated between West and East, with the Western Interior Seaway and the Hudson Seaway forming a somewhat shallow Y-shaped ocean. This particular nodosaur probably lived along the coastline, and had a great time munching on as many leaves as it liked.

Something unfortunate befell it, however, and it died, falling into the coastal waters and drifting out to sea. Eventually, it arrived in the ocean, by which point it would have started to decompose quite quickly.

Had it been still on land or even in shallow coastal waters, its armored skin would have been lost to time. Fortunately for paleontologists, something rather disgusting took place.

The bacteria breaking down its organic components were expelling quite a lot of gas as they did so. This caused the body to swell up and become buoyant enough to float far out into the middle of the ocean. At some point, it burst, which caused it to sink to the seafloor.

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