The death of Sudan, the last male northern white rhino, has made waves around the world. With just two females surviving, it seems that little can be done to stop the creatures from sliding into extinction.
But this isn’t the first time that white rhinos have stared death in the face. There may be some 20,000 southern white rhino roaming the savanna across Africa today, and we often can’t imagine the continent without them. Yet it’s easy to forget just how close these magnificent animals were to the edge of extinction, too.
At the beginning of the 20th century, it is thought that there were as few as 20 southern white rhino surviving on a small reserve in South Africa. Despite having once wandered widely throughout southern Africa, the expansion of cattle herding along with extensive hunting and poaching decimated their numbers during the Victorian era.
Located in the south-east of South Africa, Hluhluwe-iMofolozi Park is thought to be the oldest proclaimed nature reserve in all of Africa, and all populations of southern white rhino around today are descended from the tiny remnant group that clung on in this corner of the continent.
It wasn’t, however, until the 1950s and '60s that real efforts to bring the southern white rhino back from the brink began. Spearheaded by the determined conservationist Ian Player, the project was named Operation Rhino, and would become one of the biggest conservation success stories in the world.
What began was years of careful management, breeding, and protection of the remaining white rhino, which were then translocated to other reserves, parks, and even countries. And it was wildly successful.
By 1997, it was estimated there were 8,466 white rhino on the African continent, and as of 2010 this number has more than doubled to 20,160 wild animals. Most of these still live in South Africa – 18,800 by the last count – which has continued to do a striking job of protecting them, but populations now exist in at least seven other African countries, including some that were once home to the northern white rhino.