"Immune Cell Transplants" Could One Day Lead To New Kind Of Cancer Therapy

3D illustration of a cancer cell surrounded by immune cells called lymphocytes. Christoph Burgstedt/Shutterstock

Scientists in both the US and UK are working on a potential new way to treat cancer. The therapy involves implanting immune cells from healthy people into the bodies of cancer patients. It is hoped these “immune system transplants” will then enhance the body’s natural ability to fight against the cancer, essentially giving the immune system a leg up. Although it’s still “very early days”, some patients will start receiving the treatment in clinical trials over the next couple of years.

In a recent interview with The TelegraphProfessor Adrian Hayday of London’s Francis Crick Institute spoke about this field of research and its exciting potential to improve on current cancer treatments. He explained that enhancing the body’s immune system is the “ultimate do-it-yourself approach” when it comes to treating cancer.

“Even a few years ago the notion that any clinician would look at a patient and deliver a therapy which wasn’t going to directly affect the cancer in any way, shape or form, would have been pretty radical. But that’s what's happening,” he told The Telegraph.

Until recently, it’s been thought that immune cell transplants wouldn’t work as the body would simply reject the new cells and the immunosuppressant drugs required would cause side effects that outweighed the benefits. However, researchers discovered that the transplanted immune cells actually survive surprisingly well in the body, making the transplants a viable option.

“We’re seeing impressive results with cells called natural killer cells,” explained Hayday. “It’s very early days but there are patients receiving them in this next year and the year after, and the nice feature is, unlike other immunotherapy, these cells aren’t rejected.”

Clinical trials on these natural killer cells will soon take place in the US. After this, in 2020, Hayday's own research will go to clinical trial. His team uses immune cells called gamma delta T cells in place of natural killer cells. In November, they published a study in Nature Immunology showing that these T cells can be used to identify and kill dangerous cells within the body

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