This Is What Happens To A Child's Brain When Physical Discipline Is Used

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Rosie McCall 20 Sep 2018, 10:55

Last week, it was revealed that a school in the US state of Georgia will bring back paddling as a form of punishment – news that might come as a shock to anyone horrified that corporal punishment is still a thing in 2018. (Then again, it is 2018 and who can be shocked by anything anymore.)

Worldwide, there are only 60 countries that ban the use of corporal punishment on children in the home. These include Brazil, Kenya, New Zealand, and Sweden, which was the very first country to outlaw the practice outright in 1979. Meanwhile, in the UK, countries like Wales and Scotland are in the process of passing legislation to restrict or ban smacking altogether.

Cross the Atlantic Ocean and NPR reports that 28 states (and DC) prohibit the use of corporal punishment in schools and seven do not. That leaves 15 states that explicitly permit corporal punishment, including Texas, Florida, and North Carolina.  

According to a 2017 ABCNEWS poll, spanking children in school is supported by little over a quarter of US adults (26 percent), but many more (65 percent) approve of spanking as a form of childhood discipline in general, presumably provided it remains in the home. This figure has remained relatively stable since 1990.

However, the expert opinion – at least from those at the UK Association of Educational Psychologists (AEP) – is that regular spanking is not only ineffective (there are few reliable studies to show it dissuades future bad behavior) but it can damage the health of children and adolescents. No doubt there will be the inevitable chorus of "well, it didn't do me any harm", but the scientific research so far suggests that's not always the case.

The largest study to date (actually a meta-analysis) involving 75 papers over a 50-year period and more than 160,000 children found that spanking is associated with 13 out of 17 measured outcomes, including poorer mental health in childhood and adulthood and higher levels of antisocial behavior.

However, the findings are seen as somewhat controversial. The American College of Pediatricians released a statement in response to the research, calling the analysis "woefully inadequate" and criticizing the researchers for relying too much on correlational data and ignoring "the beneficial findings of studies that have investigated appropriate ways of spanking in disciplinary situations traditionally considered appropriate."

Nonetheless, young brains are especially pliable and these are just a handful of the ways spanking can have an effect.

Developmental delays:

An admittedly small-scale study published in the Annals of Global Heath earlier this year on 74 pairs of caregivers and their children found that spanking (and scolding, for that matter) was linked to developmental delays. In fact, children regularly spanked were five times as likely to experience language delays, though whether the spanking caused the language delays or vice versa (or whether there's a third factor involved somewhere) is a little trickier to determine, so the results need to be taken with a grain of salt. 

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