An interesting question came up in a discussion about earthquakes recently – namely, could one ever be powerful enough to fracture the planet, or even completely break it apart? Well, short answer, no, but this is a surprisingly complex question to answer, but let’s take a look at the science to see how possible this type of apocalypse really is.
First off, let’s just remind ourselves what causes an earthquake and just how ludicrously energetic they are at their worst. There are so many different ways to get earthquakes, but for the sake of simplicity, we’ll stick to the most common for now.
You’ve got fault networks like the San Andreas complex, which has formed at the point where the Pacific Plate is moving northwards with respect to the North American Plate. This type of tectonic margin is called a “transform” boundary, and it tends to produce very shallow and damaging earthquakes.
Then you’ve got two plates coming together to collide. On these “convergent” boundaries, one of two things happens: either the denser plate sinks beneath the other one and gets destroyed in the mantle (see: Japan Trench) or they both smash into each other and rise up to form a mountain range (see: Himalayas).
In the case of the former, you get deep-seated earthquakes, and in terms of the latter, they are at middling-to-shallow depths. With some exceptions, these are how earthquakes are generated on Earth, so how powerful can they get?
Here are the top five most powerful earthquakes on record, in ascending order:
5 – Kamchatka, former Soviet Union: 9.0M (November 4, 1952) on a convergent boundary along the Kuril-Kamchatka trench. It created a devastating tsunami, and over 2,300 people perished.
4 – Tohoku region, off the eastern coast of Japan: 9.1M (March 11, 2011) on a convergent boundary along the Japan Trench between the Okhotsk and Pacific Plates. The tsunami was one of the deadliest in human history, killing up to 20,000 people.
3 – Sumatra, Indonesia: 9.2M (December 26, 2004) on a convergent boundary where the Indian Plate slides beneath the Burma Plate. Scary fact: At one point, the rupture was moving 2.8 kilometers (1.7 miles) per second, which equates to speeds of 10,000 kilometers (6,200 miles) per hour. The resulting tsunami caused up to a quarter of a million deaths.
2 – Prince William Sound, Alaska: 9.2M (March 27, 1964) on a convergent boundary along the Aleutian Trench. Despite a powerful tsunami, just 30 or so people died.
1 – Valdivia, Chile: 9.5M (May 22, 1960) on a convergent boundary between the descending Nazca Plate and the South American Plate. It also produced a colossal, Pacific Ocean-wide tsunami, but “only” 1,000-6,000 people died.