The question with most long-duration spaceflight is if the consequences are permanent, is there anything we can do to circumvent them in future? If we're looking at reaching Mars and beyond, we need to take this into account.
“One countermeasure that might help is artificial gravity. This is true for several of the spaceflight-related effects (e.g. bone and muscle loss and vestibular system changes causing dizziness and nausea) and it might also be a potential risk mitigator for the brain changes we see," Dr Van Ombergen explained.
"However, it will have to be seen whether artificial gravity (e.g. by using a rotating spaceship) is possible, as this comes with some consequences for the technological side and cost of the development of spaceships.”