Scientists have come up with a strange new method for detecting explosives: using spinach. The plants are impregnated with fluorescent “bionic” nanotubes that emit infrared light. In the presence of specific chemicals, the light turns off and this can be used as a signal that explosives are present. The change in fluorescence can even be detected using a modified mobile phone.
But why use modified spinach instead of the nanotubes on their own? It’s all down to the fact that plants draw up large amounts of water through their roots and up to their leaves without using much energy. So in this case, the spinach is being used as an automatic water-sampling system for the explosive detecting nanotubes.
This impressive ability is one of many reasons why plants are often used not just as food and clothing but as part of complex technologies. Here are some more amazing ways we can use vegetation.
Plants’ ability to process water can also be used for something called “phytoremediation”. Soil contaminants dissolved in the water taken up by plants are carried to the leaves and accumulate in there as the water evaporates. The plants can then be harvested and removed, taking the contaminants with them. This is being used to detoxify soils of arsenic and lead. Valuable contaminants, such as cadmium or nickel, can even be recovered in a process called “phytomining”.
In a recent twist, certain plants have been genetically modified to combine their capacity for processing large volumes of water with the characteristics of types of bacteria that can break down the explosives TNT and RDX. This means we can produce modified plants that can both detect and defuse explosives.
But plants are not just used for peaceful purposes. In 1846, Christian Schönbein was carrying out an experiment in his kitchen (against his wife’s express wishes). He spilled a mixture of concentrated acids and grabbed the nearest thing to hand to mop them up and only later realised that he had used his wife’s apron. It looked fine after he had hurriedly washed it, and he hung it over the stove to dry. The crisis was averted, at least until the apron exploded.
Schönbein had unwittingly converted the cotton of the apron into nitrocellulose, or guncotton, a more powerful explosive than TNT. The cellulose that forms the basis of guncotton is the main structural constituent of plants and by mass is the most common biological molecule on Earth. Cellulose is easy to obtain and nitrocellulose is more powerful than gunpowder and so guncotton replaced gunpowder for many purposes in the 19th century.