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The body's energy production machinery malfunctions.

Mitchondria produce energy in cells by converting oxygen and food into energy. As organisms and their cells age, these mini powerplants become more inefficient and dysfunctional. When they don't function properly, they can produce an altered form of oxygen that can cause damage to DNA and proteins. 

In a study published in the journal Nature in June, scientists were able to reverse wrinkles in mice by restoring the function of their mitochondria. 

Metabolism can become imbalanced.

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Cells have to adapt to the amount of nutrients that are available. So if there is an imbalance with the cell's ability to sense or process nutrients, that causes problems.

With age, cells become less accurate at detecting the amount of glucose or fat that's in the body, so some fats and sugars don't get properly processed. Aging cells accumulate an excessive amount of fats not because older people ingest a lot of fat, but because cells don't digest it properly. This can affect the insulin and IGF-1 pathway, which play a role in diabetes. 

This is why age-related diabetes is fairly common — older adults' bodies can no longer properly metabolize all the things they eat. 

Tissues stop getting fixed and renewed.

Almost all tissues renew to some extent, but the rate of renewal becomes slower with aging, which is part of the reason why tissue damage accumulates.

Stem cells are cells that have the ability to become different types of cells in our body. In many tissues, they act as an internal repair system, replenishing cells that are damaged or dead. As humans age, stem cells become exhausted and less active, which means they can't divide as quickly. The exhaustion of stem cells means that tissues that are supposed to get renewed do not actually renew.

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