Deep-sea Exploratory Mission Finds Upside-Down Lakes And Waterfalls Off Mexico Coast

JaichMaa cavern with its shimmering upside-down pool of hydrothermal fluid. ROV SuBastian/SOI

Hydrothermal vents are openings in the seafloor where heated mineral-rich water flows into the ocean, essentially creating an underwater hot spring. Just like those found on land, deep-sea vents can host a variety of weird and wacky creatures. Take, for example, the Xenoturbella profunda just collected by researchers. Despite lacking teeth or jaws, this sock-like creature is able to prey on clams and features a “strange line around the body” almost like stitching. Other animals typically found in non-hydrothermal environments, such as anemones and a variety of tubeworms, were discovered near and around the hydrothermal vents. The team hopes to sequence the genomes of these and other microbial organisms involved in methane and hydrocarbon processes in order to better understand how these complex ecosystems interact with the world around them.

A clump of the tubeworm Oasisia, unusually common in the Pescadero vent fields, surrounding a lone Riftia tube worm. ROV SuBastian/SOI

“The hydrothermal structures here are beautiful. The animals and the bacteria that are supported by the vents are different because the chemistry of the fluids is different than the usual sulfide type chimneys,” said Research Specialist Jennifer Paduan.

First discovered in 2015, the site has only been visited by scientists just a handful of times. In order to explore it in more detail, the team first captured a high-resolution map of the known Auka field while simultaneously using autonomous vehicles to find potential new vent fields, such as the JaichMaat field. Though these underwater hydrothermal zones play a massive role in the shaping of our planet, they are still relatively underexplored and not well understood.

“The deep ocean is still one of the least explored frontiers in the solar system,” said Principal Investigator Robert Zierenberg. “Maps of our planet are not as detailed as those of Mercury, Venus, Mars or the moon, because it is hard to map underwater. This is the frontier.”

A microbial mat (a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea) consisting of mysterious blue microbes on the Auka hydrothermal vent dubbed “The Matterhorn”. ROV SuBastian/SOI


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