Climate Change Is Speeding Up The Arctic's Carbon Cycle, Thawing Alaska's Tundra

The peaks of the Brooks Range rise above the tundra of Alaska's North Slope. Troutnut/Shutterstock

Climate change is speeding up the Arctic’s carbon cycle faster than previously believed, according to 40 years of data compiled from NASA’s Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE). If these rates continue, the North Slope landscape could change to a warmer, more temperate climate found throughout much of North America.

"Warming temperatures mean that essentially we have one ecosystem – the tundra – developing some of the characteristics of a different ecosystem – a boreal forest," said study co-author Anthony Bloom of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in a statement.

According to research published in Science Advances, Alaska’s North Slope tundra spends 13 percent less time locked in frozen soil than 40 years ago.

Rising global temperatures thaw the uppermost layers of permafrost – a thick layer of soil that remains frozen throughout most of the year. Permafrost holds large stores of organic carbon that have been locked away for thousands of years. When permafrost thaws, so do the organic matter contained in it, such as ancient plants and animals. As the National Snow & Ice Data Center explains, it’s akin to taking a bag of frozen broccoli out of the freezer and putting it into the refrigerator. Eventually, the vegetables will begin to decay and break down. 

Changes observed in vegetation, permafrost, and coastal erosion in the Yukon between 1987 (left) and 2017 (right). Isla Myers-Smith/University of Edinburgh/NASA

Microbes found in permafrost break down previously frozen organic matter and release carbon dioxide as waste into the atmosphere. Typically, plant growth during the warmer months removes this waste from the atmosphere by way of photosynthesis. The Arctic carbon cycle is a delicate balance of carbon being released into and removed from the atmosphere, and is skewed as warmer temperatures increasingly thaw the frozen ground at rates that photosynthesis can’t keep up with.

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