The second tier would have been commoners who joined the polity building up around the royal family and the third would have been foreigners or recent immigrants. The fourth, Sadr notes, would have been prisoners of war and people of neighboring hunting and gathering societies. These individuals would have been kept as serfs and servants.
"At Kweneng we can tell from the architectural features that the central sector was probably the royal section of the city and that the northern sector was relatively less wealthy. This may be because it is an older part of town or because it was inhabited by more recent immigrants. The Tswana capitals were composed of districts and wards which were administered by headmen, appointed by the King. The headmen were usually members of the royal class, or talented commoners who were being elevated by the King."
The study in itself is a good use case for how far laser scanning technology has come in archaeology. Sadr added: "Perhaps one day the South African public, and others beyond its borders, will begin to appreciate the wealth of African history that is all around us here, and that everyone can be very proud of."
[H/T: Africa News]