Serious allegations have been made against an evolutionary psychologist, many of whose studies have attracted widespread popular attention. Other researchers have challenged the University of South Brittany's Dr Nicolas Guéguen to produce evidence his studies were actually done. So far, he has been reluctant or unable to back them up. As one of the most prolific and high-profile scientists in a field that is already highly disputed, Guéguen's situation could have implications for a whole area of science.
Regardless of whether you've heard of Guéguen's papers, you've certainly heard of others like them. From investigations of the most effective ways to flirt to testing whether padded bras help female hitchhikers get a ride, Guéguen has released a flood of publications on everyone's favorite topic: sex and how it guides our interactions. Not surprisingly, many of these have proven popular in the non-scientific media. Guéguen's work confirms national, as well as gender, stereotypes.
Yet the sheer volume of Guéguen's work is one of the factors arousing suspicion the data was simply made up, potentially raising big questions for his field, and indeed our view of gendered behaviors.
Nick Brown, of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, and Northeastern University's Dr James Heathers were initially amused by a Guéguen study reporting men were more helpful to women with attractive haircuts, but noticed inconsistencies in the calculations. They then observed that the effects Guéguen reported are astonishingly large for social science studies, which usually find fairly subtle results. Further digging found such problems are widespread in Guéguen's work. It's also difficult to explain how he publishes so many more papers than most scientists, despite listing few co-authors.
After spending two years requesting supporting evidence, Brown and Heathers have gone public with criticisms showing just how impractical many of the studies would have been to conduct, and how unlikely the results are. These have been summarized in Ars Technica with detail in a series of blog posts with unusually thoughtful comments. Guéguen satisfactorily answered some of the pair's questions, but dodged the most important ones.
Humans are unquestionably a mix of our biology, shaped by hundreds of millions of years of evolution, and socialization. It seems a safe bet that both influence our psychology. What is much harder to say is how much influence each has. Evolutionary psychology explores how common human traits and behaviors might have helped our ancestors survive and breed, causing their entrenchment in our genome.