New Astronomical Map Reveals Locations Of High-Velocity Gas Clouds

These bizarre gas clouds can be found fairly close to the Milky Way (pictured here), but we're not sure where most of them originated. structuresxx/Shutterstock

Rapidly moving gas is zipping around the Milky Way hundreds of times faster than the speed of sound in air. Known as high-velocity clouds (HVCs), these cold, hydrogen-packed, absolutely enormous entities aren’t just found in our own galaxy, but in several others.

A lot about them remains uncertain, but they’re important. The fact that they contain so much matter suggests that they’re a key part of the evolution of galaxies, so mapping them out would be a good shout. Fortunately, a researcher at the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) has done just that.

It seems that the darkness above our heads is busier than it may first appear. According to astronomer Dr Tobias Westmeier, who is also attributed to the University of Western Australia, about 13 percent of the visible sky is smothered by these HVCs.

The researcher in question explains the major findings of the new map in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (the preprint is available here).

All-sky map revealing the location and density of the HVCs, both in the Milky Way and those from the Magellanic Clouds. ICRAR

This incredibly accurate map charting the locations of these HVCs was conducted as part of the HI4PI all-sky survey. Using two of the planet’s largest steerable radio telescopes found in Germany and Australia, both hemispheres were covered.

Millions of separate images and magnitudes more points of data – along with plenty of data processing to remove unrelated signals – revealed the locations of all the major HVCs we currently know of in unprecedented detail. Essentially, any vast clouds of hydrogen moving at a different speed from the Milky Way's spin were singled out.

Prior to this work, many of the HVC complexes were hard to resolve with any precision, and their shapes were a little ambiguous. Now, it appears that many are actually part of an “intricate network of narrow [hydrogen-rich] filaments and clumps.”

The map reveals that the clouds are within 30,000 light-years of our galaxy, which, in astronomical terms, is incredibly close. Still, this could mean that the clouds are being emitted from the Milky Way, or they’re falling into it.

“We can only measure the radial component of the velocity, i.e. how fast a cloud is moving towards us or away from us,” Westmeier told IFLScience.

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